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What is the fate of antipodal cell after double fertilisation

  1. FG. During maturation, cells of a different fate are specified after membrane formation. The three cells at the micropylar pole differentiate into the egg apparatus (EA), which consists of an egg cell that is flanked by two synergids (Figure 1a). The three cells opposite to the EA form antipodal cells, while two nuclei, also referred to a
  2. Extended antipodal life-span. The female gametophyte of most flowering plants forms four cell types after cellularization, namely synergid cell, egg cell, central cell and antipodal cell. Of these, only the antipodal cells have no established functions, and it has been proposed that in many plants including Arabidopsis, the antipodal cells undergo programmed cell death during embryo sac.
  3. Double fertilization is a complex process where out of two sperm cells, one fuses with the egg cell and the other fuses with two polar nuclei which result in a diploid (2n) zygote and a triploid (3n) primary endosperm nucleus (PEN) respectively. Since endosperm is a product of the fusion of three haploid nuclei, it is called triple fusion

The antipodals exhibit the greatest variation amidst all the cells of the embryo sac. Usually they degenerate before or soon after fertilization, without any appreciable enlargement. Often a nutritive role has been proposed for the antipodal cells, especially where they are persistent Many changes occur in the flower after the process of fertilization. A zygote is formed which is diploid in nature and later on forms a new plant. An ovary is transformed in a fruit and ovules in seeds.The integuments form the testa and seed coat. The antipodal cell and the synergids disintegrate. The petals and the anthers fall off

Antipodal cells persist through fertilization in the

In angiosperms, one sperm fertilizes the egg to form the 2 n zygote, and the other sperm fertilizes the central cell to form the 3 n endosperm. This is called a double fertilization. After fertilization, the zygote divides to form two cells: the upper cell, or terminal cell, and the lower, or basal, cell The endosperm cells serve as a source of nutrition for the developing embryo. (viii) The synergids degenerate and the antipodal cells degenerate. In most of the plants, the antipodals and synergies disintegrate before, during or immediately after fertilization. (ix) The micropyle remains as it is After fertilization, a series of changes takes place in the flower. The diploid zygote divides and redivides by mitosis to form a multicellular embryo. The endosperm develops from the Primary Endospermic Nucleus (PEN). The ovules mature to form seeds and ovary develops into fruit. The post-fertilization changes include: Formation of embryo The dynamics of individual sperm cells after their release in the female tissue remain largely unknown. In this study, we photolabeled individual isomorphic sperm cells before their release and analyzed their fate during double fertilization in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that sperm delivery was composed of three steps. Sperm cells were. Once the fertilization of the male gamete and the egg occurs and the zygote is formed. The synergids and antipodal cells degenerate after that and the ovary converts into a fruit. So, the correct option is 'Synergids and antipodals' Answer verified by Topp

Pre- fertilization events. Fertilization. Post - fertilization events. 20. Mention the site of zygote formation in the ovule of a flowering plant. Whathappens to sepals, petals and stamens after fertilisation? State the fate of zygote, ovule and ovary in these plants. Ans. Embryo sac .Sepals, Petals and Stamens dry and fall off. Zygote. cell fate specification (2, 3). The embryo sac shows structural variation in different plant taxa (4). Nevertheless, most of the mature embryo sac across taxa is composed of egg and central cells, as well as two types of accessory cells: synergid cells and antipodal cells. The central cell is found only in flowering plants among the extant. The Process of Double Fertilization. An ovary contains at least one ovule.Inside an ovule, cells divide to produce an egg and two other cells called polar nuclei.These three cells are haploid. Double fertilization is a complex fertilization mechanism of flowering plants (angiosperms).This process involves the joining of a female gametophyte (megagametophyte, also called the embryo sac) with two male gametes (sperm). It begins when a pollen grain adheres to the stigma of the carpel, the female reproductive structure of a flower.The pollen grain then takes in moisture and begins to. central cell fate. A further striking phenotype was observed for the antipodal cells that degenerate prior to fertilization in wild type (Figure 1I). In lis-1 female gametophytes, the antipodal cells were often enlarged and protruded into the center (Figure 1L and 1M; Table 1). Additionally, in about one thir

Antipodal cells continue proliferating, and their cytoplasm is very dense (Fig. 3b). In addition, the chalazal vacuole is enclosed by a mass of antipodal cells (Fig. 3b). As female gametophyte maturation proceeds, the filiform apparatus of each synergid cell becomes dramatically elaborated while their nuclei take on a fusiform shape (i) DOUBLE FERTILISATION : In flowering plants, two sets of fertilisation takes place. One occurs between the sperm, nucleus and the egg cell, while the other takes place between the second sperm cell and the definitive nucleus. Thus, fertilisation in flowering plants is referred to as DOUBLE FERTILISATION. (ii) ARTIFICIAL POLLINATION

Double Fertilization - Process & Significance Of Double

  1. Double fertilization is a key innovation of flowering plants. The central cell is the second female gamete, and its fertilization gives rise to the endosperm, the nurse of a seed. However, how this cell is specified and evolved in angiosperm remains unknown. This study reveals a transcriptional repression mechanism to specify the central cell in Arabidopsis and provides insight into the.
  2. Events after Double Fertilisation The diploid zygote (2n) divides mitotically to form the embryo of the seed. The triploid nucleus (3n) or primary endosperm nucleus (PEN) gives rise to a mass of tissue that develops into the endosperm of the seed. Endosperm provides nourishment to the growing embryo
  3. ed antipodal cell fate in maize (Krohn et al., 2012), and EC1 family peptides induced activation of two sperm cells in A. thaliana (Sprunck et al., 2012). In particular, EC1 family pep-tides are also involved in the polytubey blocking system by mediating successful double fertilization. However, the role o
  4. synergid cells are located in the female gametophyte and are essential for angiosperm reproduction. During the fertilization process, a pollen tube grows into one of the synergid cells, ceases growth, ruptures, and releases its two sperm cells int..
  5. Antipodal cell death In the model plant Arabiodopsis, the three antipodal cells degenerate at around the time of fertilization

What is the function of antipodal cells and synergids? - Quor

Double fertilization is an event unique to angiosperms. One sperm in the pollen fertilizes the egg, forming a diploid zygote, while the other combines with the two polar nuclei, forming a triploid cell that develops into a food storage tissue called the endosperm A model for differentiation can be devised with egg cell fate as a default state of the female gametophyte and with other cell types specified by the action of spatially regulated factors. Cell-to-cell communication within the gametophyte is also important for maintaining cell identity as well as facilitating fertilization of the female gametes. Double fertilization takes place in the female gametophyte (FG), which is also referred to as the embryo sac or megagametophyte. The FG develops from the haploid functional megaspore after three rounds of nucleic mitoses, which generate an eight-nucleate immature FG. During maturation, cells of a different fate are specified after membrane. After fusion with the male cell the endosperm nucleus divides rapidly (ee,fi. io), and soon the sac is filled with a mass of nuclei. The fertilized egg (fo,fig. Io) does not divide immediately after fertilization, but rests for some time. It may be of interest to note that the nucleus of the upper antipodal

Fertilization and Post Fertilization Changes in Plants

After double fertilisation, the development of the endosperm starts when it is required by developing embryo. What is the fate of floral parts after fertilisation? Answer: After fertilisation, the transformation of parts of the flower is as follows: The other three cells lie at the chalazal end of embryo sac and are called antipodal. central cell fate, and an unknown X factor determines egg cell fate. The synergid cell fate is codetermined by the X and W factors. Antipodal cell fate is codetermined by the Y and Z factors. The Z factor may exist in antipodal cells or may origi-nate from the surrounding sporophytic tissues at the chalazal pole 2.3 Double Fertilisation. 2.4 Post-fertilisation: Structures and Events. Fate of spores. This central cell consists of two nuclei called polar nuclei. Thus, the mature embryo sac possesses 7 cells ( 3 antipodal cells, 2 synergid cells, 1 egg cell and 1 central cell) and 8 nuclei ( 3 of antipodal cell, 2 of synergid cells, 1 of egg cell.

List the components of the embryo sac and mention their fate on fertilisation. OR a. Draw a labelled diagram of the sectional view of a typical anatropous ovule. b. Mention the fate of all the components of the embryo sac after fertilisation. Ans. (a) (b) Components of embryo sac: 2 polar nuclei, 1 egg cell, 2 synergids and 3 antipodal cells central cell remain intact during fertilization. The final course of the pollen tube, therefore, is located between the egg and central cell and does not involve the disruption of either cell. The vegetative nucleus remains between the egg and central cell (Fig. 6, 7, arrows), whereas the sperm nuclei are evidently transmitted Which of the following events suggests there is a change in the egg cell membrane after penetration by a sperm? A) The pollen tube grows away from the egg toward the polar nuclei. B) CA2+ builds up in the cytoplasm of the egg. C) The egg cell plasmolyzes. D) Double fertilization occurs. E) There is a spike in membrane transport activity After landing on the stigma, pollen grains germinate and elongate through the style. Funicular and micropylar guidance signals help the pollen tube to reach the ovule and the female gametophyte. The pollen tube carries the two sperm cells to complete the double fertilization with the egg cell and the central cell Which of the following correctly describes the fate of one of the sperm cells involved in double fertilization? A.One sperm combines with two synergids to form endosperm. B.One sperm forms the pollen tube from the stigma to the ovule. C.One sperm combines with an antipodal cell to form a zygote

Double Fertilization Biology for Majors I

Double fertilization is a key innovation of flowering plants. The central cell is the second female gamete, and its fertilization gives rise to the endosperm, the nurse of a seed. However, how this cell is specified and evolved in angiosperm remains unknown. This study reveals a transcriptional repression mechanism to specify the central cell in Arabidopsis and provides insight into the. Finally, cell fate specification and maturation take place to generate the four cell types within the functional female gametophyte: two synergid cells and an egg cell at the micropyle end, a diploid central cell and three antipodal cells at the chalazal end that connects tightly with the maternal tissues . This developmental pattern is known. - The central cell after triple fusion becomes the primary endosperm cell (PEC) and develops into the endosperm while the zygote develops into an embryo. POST- FERTILISATION: STRUCTURES & EVENTS Post-fertilisation events: Endosperm & embryo development, maturation of ovule(s) into seed(s) & ovary into fruit We have reported here about the egg-cell-secreted small protein ZmEAL1, which fulfills these criteria. ZmEAL1 is expressed in a polar manner and controls the fate of accessory cells (antipodal cells) that are separated from the egg cell by the large central cell by more than 150 mm in the mature maize embryo sac

What are the changes that occur to the Ovule after

  1. The female gametophytes of angiosperms contain cells with distinct functions, such as those that enable reproduction via pollen tube attraction and fertilization. Live-cell imaging and transcriptome analysis of single female gametophyte cell reveal novel insights into the dynamics and mechanisms of cell fate specifications in the model plant Arabidopsis
  2. We have reported here about the egg-cell-secreted small protein ZmEAL1, which fulfills these criteria. ZmEAL1 is expressed in a polar manner and controls the fate of accessory cells (antipodal cells) that are separated from the egg cell by the large central cell by more than 150 μm in the mature maize embryo sac
  3. The formation of gametes is a key step in the life cycle of any sexually reproducing organism. In flowering plants, gametes develop in haploid structures termed gametophytes that comprise a few cells..
  4. es the fate of plant cells? position or environment that the cells are exposed to

These genes encode small cysteine-rich proteins, which accumulate in storage vesicles in the egg cell prior to fertilization. After sperm cell arrival, EC1-containing vesicles are exocytosed, thereby triggering the relocalization of HAP2/GCS1 from the pollen tube endomembrane system to the plasma membrane podal cells (Fig. 10). The designation of the uppermost cell as the synergid and that immediately below as the egg cell may appear arbitrary but is justified since the embryo develops from the latter. The juxtaposition of the two chalazal cells and their degener-ation after fertilization suggest their antipodal nature. There is no polar nucleus Syngamy : One male gamete + Egg cell Zygote (2n) Triple Fusion : Second male gamete + 2 polar nuclei PEN (3n) Since two types of fusion takes place in embryo sac, hence it is called as double fertilisation. Post Fertilisation Events : (i) Endosperm and embryo development (ii) Maturation of ovule & ovary Fate of Floral Part Double fertilization occurs in the mature embryo sac of any type, after which the embryo and the endosperm develop. Formerly, the female gametophyte of gymnosperms was also called an embryo sac; however, it differs in principle from the embryo sac in the development of a massive multicellular gametophyte body and in the formation of archegonia

Post fertilization changes in flower

  1. Learn about the various phases in the life cycle of an Angiosperm plant and the process of double fertilization and the formation of seeds. Module 1 three antipodal and two synergid cell.Double fertilization is characteristic feature of an angiosperm which occurs when pollentube discharges two sperm nuclei into the female gametophyte.One.
  2. The two germ cells travel through the course of the pollen-tube formation and reach the ovule. In the ovule, one germ cell fertilizes the egg cell of the female flower and forms the zygote. Both the nuclei are haploid and become diploid after fertilization. The zygote later forms the embryo and is the main product of the fertilization
  3. Which guides the entry of the pollen tube? <br> b. Which develops into endosperm <br> c. Which develops with male gamete to form the zygote? <br> d. What will be the fate of antipodal cells after fertilization? <br> e. Name the cell that develops into an embryo sac. <br> f. How many embryo sacs are formed from one megaspore mother cell. <br>
  4. the antipodal cells, which, together with the synergids, are also referred to as accessory cells, is currently unclear. Our knowledge regarding the mechanisms underlying the reg-ulation of gametic cell fate is limited. Recently, two mutants have been reported to show ectopic expression of an egg

In an embryo sac, the cells that degenerate after

After double fertilisation, many changes takes place in ovule and finally the ovule becomes converted into seeds (Table 3.1). Outer integument becomes hard and forms the outer seed coat, the testa, and the inner integument becomes thin and papery, forming the inner coat, the tegmen. The scar is the place where it is attached with the funicle cell (e), the synergids (sy), and the antipodal cells (ap). One nucleus from each pole migrates to the center (polar nuclei; pn) of the megagameto-phyte. (D) The haploid polar nuclei of maize remain separate until fertilization. The shaded area of the megagametophyte represents the central cell that develops into the endosperm after fertilization

Double Fertilization in Angiosperms: Definition & Process

The cell wall formation starts at eight nuclear stages. Three cells are grouped together at micropylar end to form the egg apparatus (2 synergids + 1 egg cell). o Three cells are grouped at chalazal end, called antipodal cells. o The remaining 2 nuclei are called polar nuclei move to the centre of embryo sac, called central cell carries two sperm cells (the male gametes). The female gameto-phyte (FG), called the embryo sac, produces the female gametes and usually is obscured within the maternal, sporophytic ovule (Figure 1). Fusion of male and female gametes occurs during double fertilization, after the sperm cells are delivered to th In flowering plants, the egg and sperm cells form within haploid gametophytes. The female gametophyte of Arabidopsis consists of two gametic cells, the egg cell and the central cell, which are flanked by five accessory cells. Both gametic and accessory cells are vital for fertilization; however, the mechanisms that underlie the formation of accessory versus gametic cell fate are unknown All of the cells within the embryo sac are highly polarized. While the egg cell's nucleus is located toward the chalazal end of the embryo sac, the synergid and central cells have the opposite polarity (Willemse and van Went, 1984; Huang and Russell, 1992).The formation of the egg cell, synergids, and one of the polar nuclei can be traced back to the four-nucleate stage of embryo sac.

Fertilization in Plants. Fertilization is the fusion of the male gamete present in the pollen with the female gamete or the egg present in the ovule. Events in Fertilization. The pollen grains germinate after falling on the stigma of the same plant species; The pollen tube grows out of the pollen grain. The generative nucleus divides into two. Fate of the cells : The egg cell fuses with one of the male gametes to form the zygote. The secondary nucleus (2n) fuses with the other male gamete to produce the primary endosperm nucleus. The synergids and the antipodal cells degenerate after fertilisation. 35. Discuss double fertilisation. Sol. Double fertilisation is an event unique to. (d)Double fertilisation After releasing the two male gametes into the synergids, one of them fuses with egg to form a diploid zygote (syngamy) and other male gamete fuses with 2 polar nuclei to form triploid primary endosperm cell (triple fusion). Because of occurrence of these two types of fusions, it is called double fertilisation

Double fertilization - Wikipedi

Figure 38.6 Double fertilization - one sperm fertilizes the egg forming the zygote (2n), the other combines with the two polar nuclei forming a triploid (3n) nucleus which will give rise to the endosperm, a food storing tissue of the seed Describe the fate of the ovule and ovary after double fertilization central cell formation is impaired in agl61 female gametophytes. Although the identities of the synergids, egg cell, and antipodal cells are not affected, agl61 embryo sacs start to degenerate before fertilization and fail to initiate embryo and endosperm development after pollen tube penetration. We performed yeas 5. Name all the haploid cells present in an unfertilized mature embryo-sac of a flowering plant. Write the total number of cells in it. Ans. 3 Antipodal cells, one large central cell having 2 polar nuclei, 1 egg cell and 2 synergids are the haploid cells present in an unfertilized mature embryo sac of a flowering plant. Thus, it has 7-cells. 6

Female gametophyte development and double fertilization in

During the process of fertilization, when the pollen tube enters the embryo sac the tube nucleus disintegrate. The fate of tube nucleus is that it disintegrates and the generative nucleus forms the ZYGOTE and ENDOSPERM NUCLEUS. Answer: The generative cell may divide to form two sperm cells before the pollen grain time of fertilization, proliferation results in up to 40 antipodal cells (Huang and Sheridan, 1994). The antipodal cells in cereals have cell walls that are covered with small outgrowths known as papillae at the boundaries between the maternal tissue and the antipodal cells and between the antipodal cells and the developing endosperm Synergid. one of usually two cells that with an egg cell form the egg apparatus of the embryo sac of angiospermous plants. In most plants the synergids are destroyed before fertilization (with the entry of a pollen tube into the embryo sac) or after fertilization. In a few plants they are retained for a long time and turn into haustoria

(iii) Central cell (iv) Egg cell (v) Polar nuclei (vi) Antipodals (b) Write the fate of egg cell and polar nuclei after fertilization. OR (a) Describe the events of Oogenesis with the help of schematic representation. (b) Write two differences between Oogenesis and Spermatogenesis 2nd PUC Biology Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants NCERT Text Book Questions and Answers. Question 1. Name the parts of an angiosperm flower in which development of male and female gametophyte takes place. Inside the anther, the cells of microsporangia develop as male gamete. Inside the ovary megasporangial cells develop as female gametes In Arabidopsis, the antipodal cells become inconspicuous and eventually degenerate after fertilization 8, but in maize and other grasses, the antipodal cells proliferate instead of diminishing, perhaps to facilitate nutrient transfer from the sporophyte to developing endosperm and embryo 2,3

Double fertilization is one of the main characteristics of angiosperms where one male Three antipodal cells (at the chalazal end), one central cell containing two polar haploid it participates in the regulation of cell fate at cellularization. After fertilization, the resultin endosperm; and three antipodal cells, of which the function remains unclear (Sundaresan and Alandete-Saez, 2010) (Fig. 1). Successful double fertilization requires appropriate cell fate specification and maintenance of the cells within the female gametophyte as well as male-female communication (Dresselhaus, 2006) an egg cell at the micropylar end (Figure 1g). Antipodal cells degenerate shortly before fer-tilization in Arabidopsis (Figure 1h) or undergo further mitosis as seen in maize. Antipodal cells are likely dispensable for fertilization. There-fore, the central cell, the egg, and two synergid cellsformafemalegermunit—afunctionaluni

ICSE Class 9 Biology Solutions Chapter 5 Pollination and

micropylar end flanking the egg, three antipodal cells at the chalazal end, and a large central cell with two polar nuclei situated in the middle of the cell (Huang and Russell 1992; Russell 1993). Thus the sac cytoplasm determines the fate of the eight nuclei, or alternatively the differentiation of these nuclei is dictated by their positio In Arabidopsis, the antipodal cells become inconspicuous and eventually degenerate after fertilization 8, but in maize and other grasses, the antipodal cells proliferate instead of diminishing, perhaps to facilitate nutrient transfer from the sporophyte to developing endosperm and embryo 2, 3 40. Sperm cell behaviour during double fertilization in Arabidopsis can be stated as follows. Identify the INCORRECT statement: (1) Pollen tube bursts and discharges sperm cells. (2) Sperm cells produce pollen tubes and enter into female gametophyte. (3) The receptive antipodal cells break down when pollen tub List fate of different parts of ovary after fertilization - 981308

Transcriptional repression specifies the central cell for

The cell wall formation starts at eight nuclear stages. Three cells are grouped together at micropylar end to form the egg apparatus (2 synergids + 1 egg cell). d Functional megaspore antipodal cells Polar nuclei Egg cell synergid Three cells are grouped at chalazal end, called antipodal cells What is the fate of the male gametes discharged in the synergid? 1. One fuses with the egg and other fuses with central cell nuclei. 2. One fuses with the egg other(s) degenerate (s) in the synergid. 3. All fuse with the egg. 4. One fuses with the egg other (s) fuse(s) with synergid nucleu (b) Megaspore mother cell (c) Embryo sac (d) Nucellus. Answer Answer: (c) Embryo sac is 7-celled structure. There is a large central cell with two polar nuclei, egg apparatus with egg cell and 2 synergids present at micropylar end and its chalazal end, 3 antipodal cells are present

Fertilisation in Plants, Animal, Humans: Process, Type

Angiosperm double fertilization is so-called because it features the formation of: A) one embryo from two eggs fertilized by a single sperm cell B) two embryos from one egg and two sperm cells C) two embryos from two sperm cells and two eggs D) one embryo from one egg fertilized by two sperm cells E) one embryo involving one sperm cell and of. The ovule in plants is a structure that encloses the reproductive cells in females which contains the nucleus, the integument and the female gametophyte. The embryo sac or female gametophyte is an oval structure present in the ovule of flowering plants. An embryo sac is said to form when the haploid megaspore nucleus divides In flowering plants, the female gametophyte is typically a seven-celled structure with four cell types: the egg cell, the central cell, the synergid cells, and the antipodal cells. These cells perform essential functions required for double fertilization and early seed development. Differentiation of these distinct cell types likely involves coordinated changes in gene expression regulated by.

Similarly, at the chalazal end, three out of four nuclei differentiates as antipodal cells. The remaining two cells (of the micropylar and the chalazal end) move towards the centre and are known as the polar nuclei, which are situated in a large central cell. Hence, at maturity, the female gametophyte appears as a 7-celled structure, though it. molecular attributes of the egg cell. Furthermore, antipodal cells adopt a central cell fate in lis mutants, demonstrating that all cells in the female gametophyte can differentiate into gametic cells. lis is defective in the Arabidopsis homologue of the yeast pre-mRNA splicing factor PRP4 (Groß-Hardt et al., 2007), and promoter The plant life cycle alternates between two genetically active generations: the diploid sporophyte and the haploid gametophyte. In angiosperms the gametophytes are sexually dimorphic and consist of only a few cells. The female gametophyte, or embryo sac, is comprised of four cell types: two synergids, an egg cell, a central cell, and a variable number of antipodal cells The cell wall formation starts at eight nuclear stages. Three cells are grouped together at micropylar end to form the egg apparatus (2 synergids + 1 egg cell). Three cells are grouped at chalazal end, called antipodal cells. The remaining 2 nuclei are called polar nuclei move to the centre of embryo sac, called central cell

What will be the fate of the following structures in an angiospermic plant? Ovary wall, ovule, zygote, outer integument, inner integument and primary endosperm nucleus. Name the common function that is performed by cotyledons and nucellus. Why is the process of fertilisation in a flowering plant referred to as double fertilisation? Explain central cell and the antipodal cells whereas the remaining seve n genes were expressed in two or more cell types. After fertilization, 12 genes were transcriptionally active in the developing embryo and/or endosperm. Conclusions: We have shown that our quantitative reverse-tran scriptase PCR differential-expression screen i

Color the zygote green. This color was used before to identify the diploid chromosome numbers of sporophyte cells. The fate of the synergid and antipodal cells is uncertain but it is thought that they disintegrate and play no further role in the plant life cycle.With fertilization accomplished there is a burst of activity and growth Ovule orientation may be anatropous, such that when inverted the micropyle faces the placenta (this is the most common ovule orientation in flowering plants), amphitropous, campylotropous, or orthotropous (anatropous are common and micropyle is in downward position and chalazal end in on the upper position hence, in amphitropous the anatropous arrangement is tilted 90 degrees and in. Keywords: Actin, Cytoskeleton, Fertilisation, Gamete Fusion, Microtubules Plumbago, Introduction Fertilisation in flowering plants involve a complesx sequence of events which culminate in the deposition of two sperm cells int tho e embryo sac (ES) and their subsequent fusion wit thhe egg and th centrae l cell, respectively Although the identities of the synergids, egg cell, and antipodal cells are not affected, agl61 embryo sacs start to degenerate before fertilization and fail to initiate embryo and endosperm development after pollen tube penetration. We performed yeast two-hybrid interaction studies and found that AGL61 can form a heterodimer with AGL80 replaced with egg cell identity (Fig. 2, E and F). Markers for the central cell [pMEA-GUS (6)] and the antipodal cells [pAt1g36340-GUS (7)] were also tested in transgenic embryo sacs; how-ever, GUS-staining patterns for these markers were similar in both phenotypically wild-type andabnormalembryosacs(fig.S2,CandD,and table S3) (a) Draw a diagram of a mature embryo sac of an angiosperm and label the following parts in it : <br> (i) Filiform apparatus (ii) Synergids <br> (iii) Central cell (iv) Egg cell <br> (v) Polar nuclei (vi) Antipodals <br> (b) Write the fate of egg cell and polar nuclei after fertilization